The press is a type of machine tool widely used in the industry mechanized and has the objective of change the shape of a piece. To achieve this, the machine uses pressure. How do the presses work? What types of pressing machines exist? We tell you about it in this article.
How do the presses work?
He principle of operation of presses It's very simple: it applies pressure for transform one piece. However, depending on the matrix that is attached to the machine, the jobs can be executed simultaneously or not. In a press it is possible to do different types of machining, such as giving shape, to stamp, cut and make holes.
The machine is responsible for press the matrix against the material to be worked, through a rotatory motion which can be total or partial. The force that the press generates varies depending on the trajectory which, at the same time, depends on the angle of application of said force.
In addition to knowing how presses work, it is important to highlight that these machines are capable of producing large amounts of energy, but always in a controlled manner and they accept materials such as steel, bronze, iron, aluminum and copper.
On the other hand, presses can qualify depending on the driving mechanism, function, structure or controllability. Today we are going to focus on two of the most common types of presses.
Types of presses by their drive mechanism
The mechanical presses are used when necessary deform pieces using great pressure. These are the most conventional and, also, very versatile. They are used in the automotive and aeronautical industries to manufacture parts for cars and airplanes. You can also find them in the factories where kitchen supplies are produced and in the metalworking industry.
The force used by the mechanical press varies according to the magnitude, the speed and the distance suddenly. How do mechanical presses work? It is a process similar to that of hit a nail with a hammer, in which the hammer accumulates energy from the moment it accelerates to suspend itself in the air until it collides with the head of the nail. At this moment, the tool releases a force that is greater than the initial one.
The mechanical presses They have a electric motor that spins a steering wheel in which energy accumulates and transforms movement from circular to linear. The motor is also responsible for releasing stored energy to apply a force equivalent to several tons. In mechanical presses it is possible cut, deform, forge, stamp and stuff.
The two types of mechanical presses most common are:
- crank. It uses a connecting rod placed on a crankshaft and has an upper flywheel that moves thanks to the electric motor. The crank press is used for the work of punching and deburred.
- screw press. It uses rotational energy that is obtained to drive a screw Large size.
How do hydraulic presses work?
The hydraulic press It is distinguished by its ability to do jobs that require a great display of strength. This type of machine is used for fold or straighten pieces, but also to Press in order to change the final shape of a material.
Curiously, the hydraulic press works according to principle of Pascal's law. According to this axiom, we use a hydraulic unit which is operated with a low pressure at the beginning. This is multiplied thanks to the fluids that generate much more pressure through a piston. The pressure generated in the pistons is used as power to perform jobs that require a lot of strength.
Due to its characteristics, the hydraulic presses They can be motorized, manual, bench-top, standing and industrial.
Mechanical or hydraulic press: Which one to choose?
If you are looking for a press for your workshopWhat type of machine tool is best for you? We start by telling you that the mechanical presses They have a fixed stroke length and are capable of performing special scrolling movements. Furthermore, all parts of the machine, including the steering wheel, are connected to each other.
In this type of machines, the velocity of displacement is variable, while the energy changes depending on the flywheel speed and the dough. The great advantage of the mechanical press is that it is quite economical and very easy to configure, in addition to being fast and productive. The drawback is that it has low pressure and its operation must be left in the hands of a expert operator. Due to its characteristics, it is the best machine for small parts machining.
Hydraulic presses work thanks to cylinders that need a fluent, As the oil, to work. In the hydraulic press the movement of the pieces can control yourself better, which makes it a great alternative for the machining of complex parts. The stroke length of hydraulic presses is variable, like the sliding speed. On the other hand, it is a very precise machine with great performance. This is the most suitable press if you need high speed of production.