Plasma cutting is a technique that elevates a gas to the fourth state of matter

What is plasma cutting and when is it used?

In the world of mechanized, precision is the key. In the industry metalworking, precision is essential for manufacturing quality parts. One of the most revolutionary technologies is plasma cutting and, at Transformados Metálicos Toral, we are machinery experts for the production of simple or very complex pieces. Plasma cutting is no exception. What does this technique consist of? When it's used?

What is plasma cutting?

Plasma cutting is a cutting technique that uses a plasma jet highly ionized for cutting conductive metals. In simpler terms, imagine a plasma jet, that fourth state of matter where electrons and the ions They coexist in perfect balance, energetic and controlled. Well, the jet is directed precisely through the material to cut, creating a clean separation with well-defined edges.

Today there are CNC plasma cutting machines

In more technical words, the plasma cutting It has an operating principle in which the temperature of the material is raised locally, above the 20,000 degrees Celsius. In this way, the gas that is used is taken to the fourth state of matter (plasma) and which is the state in which the electrons they dissociate from atom, while the gas ionizes. This technique requires special machinery, as well as an expert operator.

For plasma cutting, a high frequency generator that works with electrical energy; Furthermore, it is used gas to generate the heating flame and which will subsequently be ionized. Among the gases used we find argon, hydrogen and nitrogen. On the other hand, the plasma cutter, as the machine is known, uses a electrode and a electrode holder; These, depending on the gas, can be made of zirconium, tungsten or hafnium.

When is plasma cutting used?

One of the advantages of plasma cutting is that it can be applied to a wide variety of jobs. The cutting itself is very versatile and allows you to work on complex pieces that require very demanding tolerances. This technique is used to:

  • Cut a wide variety of conductive metals. They include stainless steel, aluminum, carbon steel and copper. No matter the hardness or composition of the metal, plasma cutting can cut through it with ease and precision.
  • For precision and speed work. Do you need clean and fast cuts? Plasma cutting is a great alternative. Its ability to cut with high precision and speed makes it the preferred choice in applications where the time and the quality They are fundamental.
  • intricate cuts. If the part requires intricate cuts or complicated shapes, plasma cutting is known for its ability to perform curved and angled cuts easily. This technique is used for the manufacture of machinery parts and even for DIY work.
  • For variable thicknesses. Unlike other cutting techniques, plasma cutting is not hampered by varying thicknesses. With this type of machining it is possible to work thin sheets up to thick plates, since plasma cutting can adapt to a wide range of material thicknesses without compromising the quality of the cut.

The benefits of plasma machining

We have already seen in which cases this is used technique, And what are the benefits? If we are more specific, we find that the plasma cutter offers less thermal deformation. Unlike other techniques, such as laser cutting or the cut by calls, the plasma generates less heat in the affected area, resulting in less thermal deformation of the material.

Electrodes and nozzles are used in plasma cutting.

On the other hand, the teams are quite modern and offer the ability to adjust a variety of parameters. The cutters allow you to modulate the current, he gas flow and the cutting speed; In this way, the machines adjust to the needs of each job. Consequently, the results are optimal and of high quality.

Although plasma cutting involves the use of high temperatures and electric flow, the machines are designed with features of security advanced to protect both the operator and the work environment. From arc detection systems to overheat protection devices, safety is prioritized every step of the process. Of course, it is necessary that the machining be carried out by a qualified operator.

It should be noted that, if we compare it with other cutting shapes, plasma is much cheaper in terms of operating cost. Consumable items, such as electrodes and the nozzles, are relatively affordable, and the energy efficiency of the process helps reduce long-term energy costs. We cannot conclude this article without mentioning that, today, there are plasma cutters CNC which make machining much easier.

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